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Hindu Classical Tantra and issues of spiritual liberation (Moksha/ Jivanmukti) by Octavian Sarbatoare

Sacrificer           Octavian Sarbatoare
Sacrifice code       wfor0273
Sacrifice date       25 march 2009

Hindu Classical Tantra and issues of spiritual liberation (Moksha/

by Octavian Sarbatoare
Hindu Classical Tantra

This paper will present Hindu Tantra as a concept from the classical
point of view. An attempt will be made to present some of the main
classifications and the place of Tantra in spirituality. The paper
will discuss also the relationship of Prakriti ("matter"), Maya,
the "illusion" in the world, and how the human body interacts with
them as far as the issue of self-realization or liberation (Moksha)
is concerned. Some classifications from the tantric philosophy are
brought into attention in order to understand the relationship.
Issues of consciousness/ awareness as liberation are largely
discussed in the main branches of Tantra and their practices are

It has been written a lot in the West about Tantra, the overall
impression from various books is that it is a kind of sexual
knowledge leading to specific kinds of experiences mostly linked to
enhancement of pleasure. Although there is a side of Tantra which
deals with the sexual experience as experience leading to higher
awareness (that is more emphasized in the western concept of neo-
Tantra), classical Tantra as a spiritual concept is far more vast.

The system of Tantra evolved from its dawn in the primitive
societies to its highest form known today, the Indian (Hindu)
Tantra. By Indian Tantra it is understood Tantra which appeared and
evolved on the social-geographical space having its core what is
actually India. Although the word Tantra (which means in
Sanskrit 'liberation through extension') belongs to the Indian
tradition, many expressions of Tantra were and are under various
names existent in many cultures all over the world.

Encompassing all aspects of life, Tantra aims at extending one's
awareness beyond the experience of material world (Prakriti) seen as
a tool to the knowledge of the transcendent. The body becomes a
temple, an expression of the Creator, a limited instrumentality able
to access the unlimited. This is a fundamental belief, that the
access to divine is done by starting at the lower level, the level
of ordinary experience. Tantra developed a typical spiritual
instrumentality, the main areas of tantric system of thought being:
deities of primitive people to the present time, aims of Tantra,
macrocosm and microcosm, Lokas ("worlds") as different levels of
awareness, human body as a temple (Pindanda), tantric practices, the
magic formulae (Mantras), the magic diagrams (Yantras), the magic
actions (Shatkarmas), worship Puja) of the holy shrines (Tirthas),
medicine of the nature (Ayurveda), Tantra as full expression of
life, consciousness/ awareness as liberation (Moksha).

It has to be observed that what is dynamic about Tantra as system of
thought is that it is in evolution all the time, therefore
expressing new realities of life. It has survived in time because
was able to adapt to new circumstances and aspects of life, but
mainly because the base of Tantra lies within the human essential
nature itself, in so not being a subject to a primary individual
revelation (as is the case in many religions). There is not a
specific moment in time when can be said humankind started. The
culture (pagan believes) of the primitive people had a lot to do
with their ancestors and their competition to survive. Gradually
human beings understood how the nature was working, therefore
accumulating incremental experience. This experience made the
primitive people to develop wisdom, to act in order the nature will
be to their advantage. The nature was seen as a manifestation of
power in various aspects like the sun, moon, earth, these aspects
being seen as possessing specific powers. This was an essential
belief and these specific powers were becoming Devas (gods) and
Devis (goddesses). Tantric practices developed in many parts of the
world from taboos, superstitions and agricultural rituals of the
primitive people. Gradually a culture and an orderly spiritual
system evolved on these fundamental beliefs in which worship in
various forms was a cornerstone.

Tantra sees worship as being of two kinds, external (physical) and
internal (mental) practices that are done according to specific
rites and in certain conditions. On these accounts a classical work
Gautamiya Tantra says:

"The inner worship grants liberation to Sadhaka-s even during their
life-time, but Muni-s (sages) alone who desire liberation are able
to perform it properly. Therefore such Sadhaka-s unable to perform
mental worship in the right manner should do it with the aid of
elements used in outer worship"

However, worship has made Tantra to deal with an extended
perspective. There are five main subjects of the Hindu Tantra i.e.
creation of the world, absorption of the world, worship of gods,
attainment of desires, union with the divine. These subjects are
expressed in a multitude of forms and practices, the number of
Tantras is unknown although there were attempts to do some
classifications during many centuries. To mention a few of the most
popular forms of Tantra, there are Kundalini Tantra (doctrine of the
power force within the human body), Shakuna Tantra (doctrine of
omens), Puja Tantra (doctrine of worship), Maithuna Tantra (doctrine
of Shiva-Shakti union), Yoga Tantra, (the doctrine of union), etc.

In Tantra the human body is a sine qua non element because it is
seen as Pindanda (microcosm or the body-egg) a mini replica of
Brahmanda (macrocosm or the Brahma-egg) at the human level. A
cornerstone of the tantric system is to understand the reality of
the human being as 'the little universe' through the feeling of own
rediscovery and the links with 'the big universe'. The body having
its own levels of refinement, there are three Shariras (body-
sheets), viz. Sthula (gross), Sukshma (subtle) and Karana (causal),
the action on each one does affect all of them. Various practices
are employed to obtain higher awareness at each level, enlightenment
is seen as a return to the source (the cause) of creation. The
feelings of being fully aware of the source of our creation and
becoming one with that source, i.e. being absorbed in it is the
attainment of liberation (Moksha). Thus the spiritual path in
tantric practices is the conscious travel from Sthula (gross) form
of body to Karana (causal) form, during these experiences various
Lokas ("worlds of awareness") being encountered.

These Lokas are fourteen in number, seven below and seven above (and
including) the earth plane. They are in spiritual sense planes of
awareness and specific experiences are associated with any
particular Loka. Therefore a practitioner on the tantric path has to
ascend the spiritual Lokas (worlds) like ascending on a physical
ladder. The culmination is Satya Loka, the 'world of truth' at which
level there is full enlightenment. In order to ascend the spiritual
ladder the practice of Tantra called Tantra Sadhana is necessary.
There are a wide variety of practices in Tantra, the basic ones
starts with practices on the body, as different yogic techniques. In
Tantra the body as the temple to the divine aspiration is much cared
about. Nothing is neglected as far as the Sthula Sharira (gross
body) is concerned from head to toe. However, an important concept
to know when employing yoghic practices is the link between Manas
(the mental energy), Prana (the breath energy) and Virya (the sexual
energy). These three areas of action are in a tight connection, the
action on anyone will affect all of them. This is a fundamental
concept in Tantra thus allowing the practitioner to choose according
to own inclinations the techniques most suitable for own spiritual

The best known techniques to act on the Manas (the mind) area are
the Mantras ("magic formulae"), various methods of Dharana
("concentration") and Dhyana ("meditation/ contemplation"). Mantra
meaning 'liberation of the mind' is seen as vibration acting on
brain centres to produce a balanced state of mind as well as
bringing various kinds of experiences. There are various types of
Mantras they should be learned from somebody having traditional
authority, hence the concept of 'initiation' by Guru. The
pronunciation of the Sanskrit words or sounds for Mantra Sadhana
becomes an important factor. Prana (the essential energy) can be
obtained consciously by Pranayama ("breathing techniques") related
mainly to specific rhythm of the breath, but there are also advanced
mental techniques to absorb Prana. Virya ("the sexual energy")
practice is related to the use of sexual energy to unfold higher
awareness mostly known as Maithuna Tantra practices. Yet other
practices involve the magic diagrams (Yantras) and use of specific
herbs (see below).

Yantras ("the magic diagrams"), are seen as forms, symbols of a
deity, overall being tantric symbols of unity of Macrocosm and
Microcosm. The most famous Yantra is Shri Yantra ("the holy
Yantra"), practice with Yantras allowing a practitioner to access
the deity through its symbolic representation.

Shatkarmas ("the six magic rites") are what can be called as
witchcraft of an Indian kind being five malefic and one
beneficial. "The six magic rites" extend from practices like
attracting somebody, to arrest (stop) an action, subjugate, excite
enmity, etc. Nevertheless the five malefic magic rites are obstacles
towards the knowledge of the divine, they are counterbalances by the
only beneficial one called Shantikarma ("the action of peace").

The subject of prayers or worship known as Puja has various
expressions. The term Pitha (shrine) applies to both the outer and
inner (i.e. inside the human body) sacred sites as creation
manifests in the Macrocosm as well as Microcosm. A Pitha (shrine) of
a Siddha (holy person) is a place where an advanced spiritual being
was sitting for a while performing own Sadhana ("practice"). It is
believed that such a place has a special energetic emanation and is
very beneficial if an aspirant, a Sadhaka (practitioner) will stay
in that area to benefit from the vibrations accumulated in that
place. The outer expression of a holy shrine will trigger the inner
expression in the human body that corresponds to a Chakra (vortex of
energy) in the Sukshma Sarira ("subtle body"). In this case the
worship takes the form of meditation in that specific Chakra. Thus
in Tantra any form of worshipping the aspects of one universal
existence can be a true and effective spiritual cultivation of the
wholeness of eternal existence in the human body itself.

Other subject in Tantra Yoga is the knowledge of the medicine of the
nature Ayurveda, various herbs (Aushadhi), leaves, seeds, etc. that
are employed for specific purposes basically for healing and
enhanced awareness at a specific time that is administered by a Guru
only. The later purpose is a subject of spiritual liberation in an
elaborated and secret concept available in higher Tantra only.
Hindu Classical Tantra and spiritual liberation

Liberation in Tantra is subject to the relationship of Prakriti
("matter") that manifests as Maya (the "illusion" in the world) and
how the human body interacts with it as far as the issue of
consciousness is concerned. Some classifications from the tantric
philosophy are necessary in order to understand the relationship.
Along with them, issues of consciousness/ awareness as part this
relationship will be discussed as they appear in the main branches
of Tantra.

First of all there exists in Tantra (Lit. 'liberation through
extension') a philosophical doctrine as a fundamental concept of
path of evolution (Pravritti), the way the universe unfolds in order
to create things and path of involution (Nivritti) of the universe,
the way a human being is able to realise the primordial unity that
is generically described as Shiva-Shakti union or interplay. The
Tantric vision of cosmic principles brings into attention what is
known as Tattvas (Lit. 'essence, reality') as building blocks of the
entire existence. Overall, there are 36 Tattvas divided into three
categories, the Pure Tattvas Shuddha), the Pure-Impure (Psychical)
Tattvas (Shuddhashuddha) and the Impure (Physical) Tattvas
(Ashuddha) (note 1). In their order of manifestation the following
Tattvas are enumerated (vide infra for a brief presentation of
them): Shivatattva, Shaktitattva, Sadashivatattva, Ishvaratattva,
Shuddhavidyatattva, Mayatattva, Kalatattva, (second "a" is long)
Vidyatattva, Ragatattva, Kalatattva,(first "a" is long"),
Niyatitattva, Purushatattva, Prakrititattva, Buddhitattva,
Ahamkaratattva, Manastattva, Shrotratattva, Tvaktattva, Netratattva,
Jihvatattva, Ghranatattva, Vaktattva, Upasthatattva, Payutattva,
Panitattva, Padatattva, Shabdatattva, Sparshatattva, Rupatattva,
Rasatattva, Gandhatattva, Akashatattva, Vayutattva, Tejastattva,
Aptattva, Prithivitattva.

The Shuddha Tattvas, refer to macrocosmic consciousness and are five
in numbers starting with Shiva Tattva, that represents the Pure
Consciousness (Cit) and Shakti Tattva, that represents the Energy of
Bliss (Ananda). In the same category there are Sadashiva Tattva,
representing the energy of will (Iccha), Ishvara Tattva representing
the energy of knowledge (Jnana Tattva) and Shuddhavidya Tattva,
representing the energy of action (Kriya). According to Tantra, the
Pure Tattvas deteriorate in quality towards the direction of
creation (evolution), thus the second group of Tattvas arise
starting with Maya Shakti.

This group of Tattvas refers specifically to the human experience,
being called psychical Tattvas and is linked to microcosmic
consciousness, the experience in the Pindanda (Lit. 'body-egg'),
i.e. the human body as microcosm, seen as a reproduction of
Brahmanda (Lit. 'egg of Brahma'), the universe itself. According to
Tantra, it is at this point of creation that the existence starts to
loose the original constituency. Maya Shakti brings first into
existence the so called Kancukas (Lit. 'cover, disguise;
limitation') that are forms of Shakti in which the primordial unity
is obscured by Maya Shakti , as such the inner perfection of Cit
Ananda as Shiva-Shakti union being limited. There are five Kancukas
part of the 36 Tattvas viz. Kala (second "a" long), Vidya, Raga,
Kala (first "a" long) and Niyati. It is important to describe
briefly the Kancukas as they are in fact the beginning of the
illusory play of Maya.

Kala Kancuka is that form of Shakti limiting the perception of the
real nature of matter as being one with the primordial unity of
Shiva-Shakti. Vidya Kancuka is the form of Shakti limiting the
perception of the real knowledge as being one with the primordial
unity of Shiva-Shakti. Raga Kancuka is the form of Shakti limiting
the perception of the real nature of the feeling of love as being
one with the primordial unity of Shiva-Shakti. Kala Kancuka is the
form of Shakti limiting the perception of time integrated with space
being one with the primordial unity of Shiva-Shakti. And finaly
Niyati Kancuka is that form of Shakti limiting the perception of the
unity of cause and effect as being one with the primordial Shiva-
Shakti unity. This last Kancuka separates cause and effect that is
essentially inseparable in the primordial Shiva-Shakti union.
Kancukas are in fact mental attitudes as they refer to conscious
experiences of a human being, being called generically the Psychical
Tattvas. At this point of Maya Shakti being entangled more and more
into matter, the last group of Tattvas are produced according to

This group of Tattvas belongs to the Material Universe being known
also as Physical Tattvas. It starts with Purusha as the entity of a
human being, than followed by Prakriti as material composition of a
human being. Firstly the higher intellect faculties are produced,
Buddhi, the intellect itself, Ahamkara, the sense of Ego and Manas,
the physical brain as basis/ support of these faculties. These last
three Tattvas have as their real nature the Sattva Guna, the pure
Guna, (quality) that is always balanced according to Tantra.

The next groups are Jnanendriyas or organs of perception that are
five in number and the Karmendriyas, organs of action that are also
five in number. Jnanendriyas and Karmendriya belong to Rajas Guna,
that is a Guna that incorporates passion and tendency to overt
activity. Jnanendriyas incorporate the five organs of perception s
namely Shrotra (ears), Tvak (skin), Netra or Cakshu (eyes), Jihva
(tongue), Ghrana (nose). On the other hand Karmendriyas incorporate
five organs of actions namely Vak (mouth), Upastha (genitals), Payu
(anus), Pani (hands), Pada (feet).

The last groups in the Physical Tattvas are the Tanmatras, subtle
elements, five in number and Mahabhutas, the essential gross
elements that are also five in number. These two groups belong to
the Tamas Guna, the quality of darkness. To enumerate the Tanmatras
they Shabda (sound), Sparsha (touch), Rupa (form, sight), Rasa
(taste, flavour), Gandha (smell, odour), i.e. the classical senses.
The last group of Tattvas, the Mahabhutas the building blocks of the
material structure of the namely Akasha or Vyoma (ether), Vayu
(air), Tejas (Agni or Vahni, fire), Ap or Toya (water), Bhumi or
Prithivi (earth).

The Tattvas classification is essential to the relationship of
Prakriti ("matter"), Maya ("illusion"), the human body and
aspiration to self-realisation in Tantric philosophy. This is for
the fact that an aspirant to self-realisation undergoes the inverse
action of manifestation, the path of involution on theTattvas
ladder. For this in order to be done, various practices (Sadhanas)
are employed, the purpose being to achieve the primordial
integration and to experience in the human body that integration.
The primordial integration according to Tantra can be obtained in
various ways, a multitude of techniques being used by following a
certain tantric school or a certain theoretical concept all centered
around the Tattvas ladder classification.

The right path of Tantra known as Dakshina Tantra is associated with
and Shakta tradition (worshippers of Shakti) and is based mainly on
ritual, incantations and Mantras ("sacred formulae") in order to
ascend the ladder of consciousness from the basic level of the
Prakriti Tattva to the highest knowledge that of the realm of Pure
Tattvas. Dakshina Tantra employs basically Mantras in order to
gradually produce catharsis in the gross body and the mind, thus the
Maya consciousness becomes known and the practitioner is able to
raise beyond this level and to travel consciously towards the Pure
Tattvas. The main incantation (Stotra) is Lalita Sahasranama, a Mala
Mantra ("long Mantra") containing a thousand names of Devi Lalita, a
deity that is seen as Supreme Shakti as far as the world of
manifestation is concerned (note 2). Being profoundly ritualistic
and of secret nature, Dakshina Tantra has few adherents and is
practically confined within the boundary of India, having as
custodians of the tradition the virgin Yoginis living in a small
village in Tamil Nadu (note 3), a state of southern India. The
knowledge of Dakshina Tantra is seen as being highly secret ("maha
rahasya jnana") compared to the other branch, the Vama Tantra that
has attained worldwide spreading especially under the name of neo-

Vama Tantra, the "left path" of Tantra, is associated with Shaiva
tradition (worshippers of Shiva) and has acquired its name from the
traditional image of male-female representation, the female being
placed on the left side of a man. Thus the very name of this
spiritual path suggests that the factual interaction male-female is
important, various sexual interactions and techniques being
elaborated largely (note 4). Vama Tantra is centred around the
Kundalini concept that is in itself centred around the Pindanda
concept that sees the human body as a microcosm. Applying the
Tattvas classification to the human body, Vama Tantra is very much
elaborated and makes a parallel of the three categories of Tattvas
viz. Pure, Psychical and Physical with the concept of Shariras
(Lit 'frames'). Thus there are three Shariras, Sthula (gross),
Sukshma (subtle) and Karana (causal) all seen as degree of finesse
of vibrations of energy from the original energy that is known as
Prana (Lit. 'breath of life; spirit; vitality') that being the
essential energy out of which everything is composed in various
forms. It is stated that in the human body, the Pindanda, there are
the five major vital airs viz. Apana, Samana, Prana, Udana, Vyana
all linked to actions in specific parts of the body. But Pranas have
to be activated, this is a fundamental idea in Tantra that is
applied in practical terms to the human body in order to have a
conscious access to a higher knowledge.

Tantra takes human body as possessing itself the necessary
instrumentality in order to transcend the mundane existence and
acquire a transcendental consciousness. A complex theoretical
concept is constructed around the Kundalini term (vide infra) and an
elaborated psycho-anatomical concept is presented in order to
produce a tangible instrumentality within the human body. The human
body possesses five overlapping "bodies" known as Koshas
(Lit. 'sheath; body') each subsequent one subtler that the later.
There are thus Annamaya Kosha (body of food) Pranamaya Kosha (body
of energy), Manomaya Kosha (mental body), Vijnanamaya Kosha (body of
awareness) and Anandamaya Kosha (body of bliss) all seen as spheres
of consciousness of a practitioner. It is in the conscious
experience of the Koshas by a practitioner, where the issue of
Kundalini becomes essential.

Kundalini (Lit. 'that which is coiled') is seen by Tantra as the
evolutionary energy as power/ force resting at the base of the
spinal column where it is described as being coiled three and a half
times around Svayambhu Linga a solid support of energy (note 5).
When Kundalini is raised up through the Sushumna Nadi (an energetic
channel along the vertebral column) the higher levels of
consciousness are experienced. Subsequently, the Cakras (vortexes of
energy located on various points across Sushumna Nadi) are
activated, and Kundalini energy reaches Sahasrara Cakra, (that is
the highest Cakra located physically in the brain) where is the end
of the journey. At this point of experience Kundalini takes the
aspect of Karana Bindu ('causal point') in the human body and the
Pure Tattvas (vide supra) are consciously experienced.

In order to create proper conditions of Kundalini awakening, various
yoghic techniques (note 6) are employed applying both to body and
mind. Tantra maintains that the human body is normally full of
impurities that act as blockages to perception, an acute perception
being a must in order to enhance the body ability to sustain the
awakening of Kundalini which is seen as a terrifying experience
(note 7). Mind is also subject to various yoghic practices in order
to be made more tranquil and under control of the intellect (note
8). Authorities in Tantra point out that only after many years of
purifying practices specific male-female sexual interaction, known
as Maithuna Tantra (Mookerjee, A. & Khanna M., 1993, pp. 187-188),
can take place, that being a subject exclusive to the Vama Tantra

All techniques and various ritualistic practices have the purpose to
create the understanding (Jnana) and gradually disperse Maya,
the "illusion" that according to Tantra binds the body and mind to
the realm of Prakriti ("matter"). By dispersion of Maya through
Jnana, liberation or self-realization is achieved. The symbolic
representation of the path of liberation is done in a variety of
ways, either as the Tattvas classification as above or as a
graphical representation known as Yantra (Khanna, M., 1994, pp. 11-
28) or even more as vibration representation as Mantra. This last
kind of representation in its highest form uses the ultimate Mantra
known as Panchadashakshari ('the fifteen-syllables Mantra') held to
be the most hidden secret Mantra (note 9). Even the main gods and
goddesses in Hinduism find their places within the Tantric concept,
the goddess Kali for example, that is usually represented as having
a scaring manifestation is seen as residing in the lower Muladhara
Cakra (Lit. 'root's support Cakra'). Goddess Saraswati that is seen
as embodiment of grace and sensibility is seen as being located in
Sahasrara Cakra where the union of Shiva-Shakti takes place. The god
Shiva himself is seen as residing in Sahasrara Cakra in waiting for
Shakti to come. Thus principles of life expressed in Hinduism by a
great variety of goddesses and gods find their expression in Tantra
that is from this point of view all encompassing. The multitude of
paths in Tantra has all the same goal that is the spiritual
liberation known as Jivanmukti, the enlightenment of a human being.

Enlightenment is thus a cognitive process. Once knowledge is
obtained and a large panorama of life has been experienced in
conjunction with the end of suffering that marks the birth of a new
consciousness and the final goal is obtained according to Tantra.
The integration of male-female principles within a human body is the
end of the spiritual journey that brings the acquisition of divine
qualities in the human body itself. What used to be manifest but
unconscious that is Shakti, acquires consciousness and what used to
be conscious but non-manifest that is Shiva becomes active, the
entire union, manifestation and conscious awareness taking place
within the body-mind frame of a human being.

Through the awareness of the everyday life experiences Tantra with
its natural approach to life is an interesting development of the
modern days, with the belief of emerging of a new kind of humankind.
This is known as Homo Noeticus (as was defined by writer John
White), Homo Tantrika or Homo Universalis (in Philosophy), the
cosmic man (in the New Age literature and the vedic tradition). The
term "Noetics" defined as the study of consciousness refers to
deepened awareness and multilevel perception of the reality,
practically a descend of consciousness at the human level.

In the Veda, the Ashtavakra Samhita work one reads:
"Burn down the forest of Ajnana (ignorance) with the fire of Shradha
(faith) of being Vishuddhabodha (Pure Consciousness), be happy and
free from grief"

Other accounts see Tantra as bringing together East and West
cultures. East has the dominant verb 'to be' therefore is
consciousness or Shiva oriented, but for the West the verb is 'to
do' therefore is power or Shakti oriented. The synthesis of East and
West is a form of union of Shiva-Shakti, a form of Maithuna of
civilizations at a grand scale. This synthesis certainly qualifies
Tantra as a perspective culture of humanity and Homo Tantrika as is
defined by Tantra as having advanced level of awareness, a
successful cultural hybrid of the East and West.

To conclude this paper is to say that Tantra is an ancient
religious/ philosophical belief that flourished in India, attaining
a worldwide reputation to the present days. There is an elaborated
philosophical concept along with a very diverse kinds of practices.
As far as liberation is concerned, there exists the fundamental
importance of the Tattvas when issues of Prakriti, Maya, human body,
and spiritual realization are to be taken into account. The 36
Tattvas are the foundation of understanding the tantric way of
liberation. The knowledge of Tattvas becomes paramount in order to
realize a gradual dispersion of the "illusion" (Maya) both at
theoretical (Jnana) and practical areas. Tattvas have a certain
sequence of being created in a ladder format structure, the inverse
climbing of the ladder being in fact the path of liberation. This
path of liberation employs a variety of techniques as recommended by
branches of Tantra.

The main branches of Tantra as Dakshina and Vama have a different
approach to self-realization although they focus ultimately on the
same purpose. Dakshina Tantra is basically ritualistic, the
acquisition of knowledge comes mainly from attending and participate
in those elaborated ceremonies and maintaining a focused awareness.
Vama Tantra has a complex terminology and a variety of techniques
being focused on the body psycho-physical structure. Here Kundalini
concept becomes essential, an entire theory and elaborated practical
means are created around Kundalini. The practical approach takes
yogic techniques as preliminaries before attending typical Vama
Tantra practices that are linked to various sacred sexual techniques
known as Maithuna Tantra.

By the male-female integration within a single human body,
hierophany of Hinduism, that of goddesses and gods is acknowledged.
Thus, from the tantric view theophany is present within the human
body. This conceptual absorption takes the form of the conscious and
sacred experience of Shiva-Shakti unity, making Shiva the embodiment
of pure consciousness manifest, and Shakti the embodiment of
manifestation conscious. Thus Tantra is able to recommend a
practical way of overcoming the illusory aspect of matter and make
human consciousness to reside to the same side with that of divine


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Ashram, Gosford, 1985

1. Ref. Khanna M., 1994, p. 74 for the whole classification.
2. Ref. Ananthakrishna Sastry, 1988, of the edition of Lalita
Sahasranama, with a commentary of the famous scholar Bhaskakaraya.
3. Ref. the synopsis published by Sri Lalita Temple and Sri Lalita
Mahila Samajam by Jaya Acbagam, 15 New Street, Misri, year not
specified. The Chayapura Sakti Peeta of Tirueengoimalai in Tamil
Nadu is presented as the most important out of the 51 Shakti
Peethas, and the Yoginis residing there as custodians of the
tradition. Daily activities are based on various Poojas. (This note
respects the transliteration as was published)
4. Ref. Mookerjee, A. & Khanna M., The Tantric Way, Art, Science,
Ritual, 1993, the whole chapter on Ritual p. 125.
5. Ref. Avalon A. in his book The Serpent Power that is entirely
dedicated to Kundalini.
6. Classical books on Yoga are seen to be The Siva Samhita, The
Gheranda Samhita, Siva Samhita (various editions were published so,
best known being by Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Ltd) and Yoga
Vasishtha. Refer to Hari, R.M. Shri Yoga Vasishtha, H.M. Damodar,
Shanti Nagar, 1995, for a comprehensive concept on Yoga. Refer also
to Eliade, 1975.
7. Ref. Satyananda Saraswati, Swami in his Kundalini Tantra, 1996,
section 1 for risks and precautions (p. 55) and the experience of
awakening (p. 76).
8. Ref. Satyananda Saraswati, Swami in his book Meditations from the
Tantras, Bihar School of Yoga, Munger, Bihar, 1975. Theory of
meditation is extensively presented along with preparation and the
practice in various forms. Refer also to Satyananda Saraswati,
Swami. Taming the Kundalini, 1985 for various acquisitions of
Siddhis ('psychic powers') associated with Kundalini awakening.
9. Panchadashakshari Mantra being seen very secret allow me not to
divulge it.

Copyright © 1997 and subsequent years by Octavian Sarbatoare

This article is copyright-protected. The author grants the right to
copy and distribute this file, provided it remains unmodified and
original authorship and copyright is retained.

About the author: Octavian Sarbatoare (of Romanian origin) is a
freelance writer (member of the Australian Society of Authors) based
in Sydney, Australia. He has done research studies at Bihar Yoga
Bharati (Yoga University) in India under the guidance of Swami
Niranjanananda Saraswati the chancellor of the Yoga University. The
main areas of subjects are: Yoga, Tantra, Veda, Yantra, Mantra,
Kundalini, Bhakti, Sanskrit Terminology, Consciousness, East and
West towards spiritual unity.


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